Dyslexia


Characteristics
Dyslexia is a language based, learning based disability. Dyslexia refers to a cluster of symptoms which result in people having difficulties in other language skills such as spelling, writing and speaking. Dyslexia is a life-long status; however, its impact can change at different stages in a person's life.

The exact causes of dyslexia are not completely clear, but studies show differences in the way the brain of a dyslexic person develops and functions. Dyslexia is not due to either lack of intelligence or a desire to learn; with appropriate teaching methods students with dyslexia can learn successfully.
 
It occurs among all groups regardless of age, race, gender or income. Research has established that dyslexia can run in families. The problem is not behavioral, psychological, motivational, or social, and it is a misconception that people with dyslexia "see backward."
 
Other characteristics include:
  • Lack of awareness of sounds in words, rhymes, or sequence of sounds and syllables in words;
  • Difficulty accurately decoding nonsense or unfamiliar words;
  • Difficulty reading single words in isolation;
  • Lack or reading fluency; does not read smoothly and at an appropriate pace;
  • Variable degree of difficulty learning the names of letters and their associated sounds;
  • Difficulty with learning to spell;
  • Difficulty with rapid naming of familiar objects, colors, or letters;
  • Difficulty with phonological memory (holding information about sounds and words in memory);
  • Difficulty with learning and reproducing the alphabet in correct sequence (in either oral or written form)    
  • Family history of similar problems.

Assessment Process
Recommendation for assessment may include results of some or all of the following:

  • Teacher observations and concerns;
  • Academic progress reports;
  • Samples of school work;
  • Parent conferences;
  • Testing for limited English proficiency;
  • Evidence of adequate intelligence;
  • Speech and language screening through a referral process;
  • K-2 results of Texas Primary Reading Inventory;
  • District designated assessment;
  • Current state student assessment program.

Serving the Dyslexic Student in Snyder ISD
Most people with dyslexia need help from a teacher, tutor, or therapist trained in using a multi-sensory, structured language approach.

It is important for these individuals to be taught by a method that employs all pathways of learning at the same time: seeing, hearing, touching, writing, and speaking.
 
Many individuals with dyslexia need this type of instruction so they can move forward using explicit instruction in the decoding of written language (the letter-sound system) is critical.

This code must be taught bit by bit, in a sequential cumulative way. There must be a systematic teaching of the rules governing written language.
 
 Guidelines for the program are available in the district's Dyslexia Handbook.

Most Dyslexia students are served through 504 services.

Funding
There are no federal or state monies specifically designated for the dyslexia program. The district designates funds for the program. Each campus has a budget and funds are designated for the district level.